Syphilis at birth in the Internationally adopted child
A diagnosis of congenital syphilis is very difficult to establish because clinical signs of infection may not be apparent and many times the blood test are unreliable. Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease that is transmitted form the mother to the infant via the placenta. Fortunately, if this disease is discovered during the prenatal visits it can be easily treated with Penicillin. Untreated maternal infection in the early stages of the pregnancy can lead to significant fetal morbidity whereas infection in the later part of the pregnancy can produce a symptomatic infant.
The two most commonly used screening tests for syphilis are (1) VDRL: is useful for screening and follow-up of known cases and (2) RPR: used for screening. All screening tested need to be confirmed with a more specific test called the FTA-ABS that can verify current or past infection. If this test is positive then the likelihood of having the infection is pretty good and needs to be treated.
The causes for the false positive results on the initial screening test can be secondary other medical conditions such as: (aging, pregnancy, mononucleosis, hepatitis, IV drug addiction, and some autoimmune disorder like lupus). Another reason for a false positive screening test or (VDRL or RPR) it may represent passively transferred antibody from the mother and not actual congenital infection. In cases where it is believed that the positive test result is from passive maternal transfer in the absence of active infection, it is required to follow-up with serial measurements of VDRL and they should reduce to normal values by a couple of weeks.
Like in adults this infectious disease is easily treatable with injectable penicillin. Infants with a positive confirmatory serology for syphilis should be evaluated fully. A complete history of the maternal disease and therapy is mandatory. The infant needs to have a complete blood count done, liver function test; long bone x-rays, spinal fluid examinations.
Treatment needs to be given to infants with:
1) Whose mother’s were inadequately treated?
2) Mother’s who received treatment less than one month prior to delivery.
3) Mother’s who were given other medications other than penicillin.
4) Mother’s who had undocumented or a poor blood testing response to treatment.
If the mother had received adequate therapy and there are no clinical or laboratory signs present, this infant may be followed without therapy but needs to have serial monthly blood tests performed. Rising titers or clinical signs usually develop by 4 months in infected infants.
Infants with proved or suspected congenital syphilis require treatment with injectable penicillin every6- 8 hours for 14 days.
Newborns: usually symptomatic but when signs do develop after a few weeks they are, Jaundice (yellowing of the skin), anemia (low blood levels), large liver and edema or swelling. Some may even have severe signs of meningitis or infection of the spinal fluid.
Young Infants: normal for first few weeks and then develop skin lesions, and a paralysis of the arms or legs. There is usually an enlarged liver or spleen, and like the newborns there is anemia. “Snuffles” (rhinitis or continuous runny nose) with a thick mucous drainage that excoriates the upper lip is found sometimes. A syphilitic rash usually occurs on the palms and feet but may occur anywhere on the body. They look like bright red spots that gradually fade.
Syphilis in the young infant may lead to stigmatas recognizable in later childhood:
1) Rhagades: scars around the mouth and nose
2) Depressed nasal bridge (saddle nose)
3) Permanent upper teeth peg shaped with a central notch ( Hutchinson teeth)
4) High forehead secondary to low grade meningitis
Children with untreated spinal fluid meningitis complications may have:
1) Eye problems and infections
2) Deafness, mental retardation
3) Speech defects
4) Bone manifestations
1) Severe disease if undiagnosed may be fatal to a newborn
2) Complete cure can be obtained if young infant is given Penicillin
3) Treatment of primary syphilis with penicillin is curative
4) Blood test reversal occurs within one year
5) Permanent neurological sequelae occur only with severe spinal disease
Questions that you need to ask:
1) What test were performed and at what ages? Where they repeated or confirmed?
2) Was the mother treated during the pregnancy with penicillin?
3) Was the infant treated with penicillin and for how long? Was it injectable?
4) What if any follow-up testing was performed?
Written by George Rogu M.D.
* Note: The information and advice provided is intended to be general information, NOT as advice on how to deal with a particular child's situation and or problem. If your child has a specific problem you need to ask your pediatrician about it -- only after a careful history and physical exam can a medical diagnosis and/or treatment plan be made. This website does not constitute a physician patient relationship.
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